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April 21, 1969

A Computer-Controlled Patient Simulator

Author Affiliations

From the divisions of anesthesiology and research in medical education, University of Southern California School of Medicine, and the Department of Anesthesiology, Los Angeles County—University of Southern California Medical Center.

JAMA. 1969;208(3):504-508. doi:10.1001/jama.1969.03160030078009

Sim One, a computer-controlled manikin, demonstrates the feasibility of using a simulator to teach medical students, interns, and residents some of the manual skills they must learn. The simulated patient looks like a living person, "breathes" with chest and abdomen, has carotid and temporal pulses synchronous with an audible heartbeat, and can be ventilated by bag and mask or through an endotracheal airway. "He" also responds appropriately when oxygen, nitrous oxide, thiopental sodium, succinylcholine, and either of two vasopressors are given by the student. Each maneuver of the student and each response of the simulated patient are recorded and available in typed and graphic form for immediate reinforcement of the learning experience.