One hundred thirty-six cases of uncomplicated neck sprain were studied to determine the relationship between the great disparity in duration of symptoms and various factors not directly related to the injury. The factors studied were the following: age, sex, race, occupation, marital status, hospitalization, associated medical conditions, habits, roentgenographic findings, extent of car damage, emotional factors, extensiveness of the medical history, treatment, and litigation. Only in the last four factors was there any association with the duration of symptoms that, in this study, varied from complete recovery in three days to persistence of symptoms for more than five years. This great disparity in duration of symptoms was not related to the degree of injury. As one would expect, however, the more severe the injury, the longer was the median duration of workdays lost.
Farbman AA. Neck SprainAssociated Factors. JAMA. 1973;223(9):1010-1015. doi:10.1001/jama.1973.03220090032007