Follow-up was conducted on 74 of 163 women admitted to hospitals in Madison, Wis, for pyelonephritis. Admission occurred between 1950 and 1960 when the women were from 15 to 35 years old. Clinical illness in most patients began in association with marriage, pregnancy, or the postpartum period. Repeat episodes of infection occurred within three years of follow-up in 29 (40%) of the patients and within six months in 16 (23%). Twelve (17%) were bacteriuric at the time of follow-up. Twenty-one (28%) had had an operative urologic procedure; 17 (23%) had a history of renal stone. Elevated blood pressure was found in only 10 (14.5%). One patient had died of complications of pyelonephritis, one had required renal transplantation for end-stage renal disease, and two other patients had azotemia. Seven patients had undergone unilateral nephrectomy for pyelonephritis, but most were doing well at the time of follow-up.
Parker J, Kunin C. Pyelonephritis in Young WomenA 10- to 20-Year Follow-Up. JAMA. 1973;224(5):585–590. doi:10.1001/jama.1973.03220180011003