One hundred healthy women were examined prospectively during their annual physical examination for any of the preliminary criteria of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No patient had more than three of the criteria; 50 (50%) had none. The preliminary criteria were effective in excluding normal patients.
Three of 19 patients taking oral contraceptives had serum antinuclear antibody (ANA), whereas only one of 81 non-pill users had serum ANA (P <.05). None of these patients with positive ANA had clinical evidence of SLE.
(JAMA 236:1497-1499, 1976)
Wolf L, Sheahan M, McCormick J, Michel B, Moskowitz RW. Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus ErythematosusFrequency in Normal Patients. JAMA. 1976;236(13):1497–1499. doi:10.1001/jama.1976.03270140049025