Until the mid-20th century, confirmation of cardiac diagnosis required invasion of the dead body at necropsy or invasion of the living person at thoracotomy. Cardiac catheterization and cardioangiography now permit precise diagnosis in the living patient by invasion via arteries and veins. These techniques, carrying small but definite risks, have happily provided validation for a growing array of safe, relatively inexpensive, and infinitely repeatable noninvasive diagnostic methods that can be added to the old standbys—roentgenography and electrocardiography. In Noninvasive Cardiology, 18 contributors review the theory and practice of the best established noninvasive techniques, including nuclear cardiology and seven graphic methods: apexcardiography, ballistocardiography, echocardiography, kinetocardiography, radarkymography, systolic time intervals, and external pulses. The able editor of this collection is, quite appropriately, Arnold Weissler, father of quantitative noninvasive cardiography in the United States.
It is difficult to choose among eight authoritative contributions, each presented by distinguished workers who avoid the major pitfall
Spodick DH. Noninvasive Cardiology. JAMA. 1974;228(12):1591. doi:10.1001/jama.1974.03230370073035