Moderation is necessary in deciding how much to tell patients to ensure valid consents for surgical or other procedures. Since the courts will not tell physicians, except by hindsight, the extent of legally required disclosures, it is necessary to develop a reasonable approach—one that provides patients with sufficient basic information to exercise their right of refusal while, at the same time, offering physicians reasonable legal protection. The groundwork for such a plan has been formulated.
(JAMA 229:305-310, 1974)
Mills DH. Whither Informed Consent?. JAMA. 1974;229(3):305-310. doi:10.1001/jama.1974.03230410029019