—To study the effect of human T-cell lymphtropic virus type I (HTLV-I) on markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression.
—A retrospective, nested case-control study.
—A university hospital outpatient HIV clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
—Human immunodeficiency virus—seropositive adults participating in a prospective HIV cohort study.
Main Outcome Measures.
—The HIV clinical stage, CD4+ lymphocyte counts, and other laboratory parameters in 27 individuals infected with HIV and HTLV-I (coinfection) and 99 age-matched, HIV-seropositive, HTLV-seronegative controls (single infection).
—Variables independently associated with coinfection included higher CD4+ lymphocyte count (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence limits [CL], 1.3,4.1), higher CD4+ percentage (OR, 2.0; 95% CL, 1.3, 3.2), β2-microglobulin level of 254 nmol/L or more (OR, 6.8; 95% CL, 1.3, 35.4), World Health Organization stages 3 and 4 (OR, 4.4; 95% CL, 1.1,18.0), and reporting a parenteral risk factor (OR, 7.4; 95% CL, 1.4, 38.9). When stratified by p24 antigenemia, coinfection was associated with an estimated 82% higher CD4+ lymphocyte count (P<.05).
—Coinfection was associated with higher CD4+ lymphocyte counts, more advanced clinical disease, and higher β2-microglobulin levels than HIV infection alone. The higher mean CD4+ lymphocyte count does not appear to offer immunologic benefit. Caution should be exercised when using CD4+ lymphocytes as a surrogate marker in studies of HIV infection in populations where HTLV-I is prevalent. Further studies are needed to address whether current CD4+ lymphocyte values for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV infection are appropriate in coinfection.(JAMA. 1994;271:353-357)
Schechter M, Harrison LH, Halsey NA, Trade G, Santino M, Moulton LH, Quinn TC. Coinfection With Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I and HIV in BrazilImpact on Markers of HIV Disease Progression. JAMA. 1994;271(5):353-357. doi:10.1001/jama.1994.03510290035033