An anteriorly positioned lower pole of the right kidney is often unappreciated on physical examination. Yet, on review of a large number of abdominal sonograms, more than 12% of the patients had a right kidney with a lower pole sufficiently anterior in position so as to lie at the same depth as the anterior surface of the liver. In a group of patients referred for ultrasound evaluation of hepatomegaly, 20% proved to have a normal liver and an anteriorly positioned lower pole of the right kidney.
(JAMA 242:2320-2321, 1979)
Walzer A, Koenigsberg M. Examining the Anterior Right KidneyFrequent Lack of Appreciation in Examination of the Right Upper Quadrant. JAMA. 1979;242(21):2320–2321. doi:10.1001/jama.1979.03300210046023