The development of measles vaccination recommendations for immunodeficient children infected with human immunodeficiency virus requires assessment of disease risk and the risks and benefits of vaccination. Measles in 4 such children resulted in 3 severe pneumonias and 1 death despite previous immunization in 2. Antibody to measles as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was present in 3 (12.5%) of 24 children studied retrospectively and developed in only 2 (25%) of 8 children immunized and followed up prospectively. The sera of 9 of 24 children had antibody when tested by sensitive hemagglutination inhibition. Measles developed in 2 of 6 children who had negative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results and positive hemagglutination inhibition results. No adverse consequences of measles immunization were detected. Although the immunogenicity of measles vaccine in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus was low and vaccine failure occurred, the apparent safety provides the rationale for immunization in the face of a potentially fatal disease. Since neither documented immunization nor low-level antibody guaranteed immunity to measles, we recommend passive postexposure immunoglobulin prophylaxis for all children infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
Krasinski K, Borkowsky W. Measles and Measles Immunity in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. JAMA. 1989;261(17):2512–2516. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03420170056030