Academic sanction, the intentional denial of scholarly exchange for political reasons, presents grave practical and moral problems to the open pursuit of medical science. The focus of this article targets South African science. However, examples of academic sanction in Western Europe, the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Japan, and other areas are given to support the existence of discriminatory restrictions against scientists. Examples and reasons also are offered for and against academic sanction, with the recommendation that academic sanction be pursued only with judgment informed by factual knowledge as well as moral, ethical, and compassionate values.
Crawshaw R. Academic SanctionTargeting South African Science. JAMA. 1989;262(11):1499-1503. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03430110089034