Cross-sectional relations among blood pressure (BP), aerobic fitness, body fatness, and fat patterning were studied in 216 primarily Hispanic inner-city 5-and 6-year-olds. Fitness was measured with a submaximal treadmill test, and fatness was measured with five skin folds. Diastolic BP was inversely related to fitness in the boys and girls, and positively related to fatness for the boys. Systolic BP was positively related to fatness for the boys and girls. Using multiple regression and including parental BPs, fatness explained significant proportions of the variance in systolic BP for both the boys and girls and in diastolic BP for the boys. There were tendencies for central skin folds to explain more of the variation in BP than peripheral skin folds only for the boys. Fitness and fatness were inversely related for the boys and girls. Thus, at 5 and 6 years of age children exhibit some of the same risk factors for cardiovascular disease seen in adults.
Gutin B, Basch C, Shea S, Contento I, DeLozier M, Rips J, Irigoyen M, Zybert P. Blood Pressure, Fitness, and Fatness in 5- and 6-Year-Old Children. JAMA. 1990;264(9):1123-1127. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03450090059025