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Article
December 28, 1994

Optimal Calcium Intake

Author Affiliations

Panel and Conference Chairperson, Professor of Medicine and of Pharmacology, Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY; Professor, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville; Associate Professor, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Director, General Clinical Research Center, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago (Ill); Professor of Medicine, Division of Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Chief of Rheumatology, New England Deaconess Hospital, Clinical Associate, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; President, Women's Medical Group, Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Evanston Hospital, Skokie, Ill; Associate Professor of Medicine, Director, Yale Bone Center, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn; Director, Women's Health Project, Women's Research and Education Institute, Washington, DC; Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine/Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex; Professor, Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Program Director, General Clinical Research Center, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Md; Professor and Director, Nutrition Education and Research Program, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno; Professor, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill; Division of Biostatistics, Research Epidemiology, and Medical Informatics, Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, Detroit, Mich; Nutrition Epidemiologist, Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh (Pa); "Attaining Peak Bone Mass—Infants"; "Epidemiological Studies on Calcium and Blood Pressure"; "Calcium Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk" and "Constipation and Possible Calcium Toxicity"; "Ethnicity and Calcium Metabolism"; "Public Health Implications of Interventions to Promote Calcium Intake: Cost-Benefit Considerations"; "Role of Calcium in Restraining Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women" and "Calcium Supplements"; "Cofactors Influencing the Calcium Requirement—Other Nutrients"; "Importance of an Adequate Source of Vitamin D for Calcium Metabolism"; "Life-Cycle Changes in Bone Mass" and "Genetics"; "Nutritional Requirements for Calcium in Secondary Osteoporosis"; "Kidney Stones and Hypercalciuria"; "Calcium Intake and Preeclampsia"; "Estrogens, Calcium, and Bone"; "Calcium Intake in the United States" and "Current Dietary Behavior"; "Public Education"; "What Is the Interaction Between Calcium and Exercise?"; "Attaining Peak Bone Mass—Adolescents"; "Epidemiological Insights"; "Optimal Calcium Intake for Preventing Bone Loss and Fractures in the Elderly"; "Dental Manifestations of Inadequate Calcium"; "Evolutionary Aspects of Calcium"; "Restraining Bone Loss in Men"; "Overview: Calcium and Disease Prevention"; "Attaining Peak Bone Mass—Young Adults"; "Hypertension: Clinical Studies"; "Calcium Homeostasis and Skeletal Health"; "Other Bone Diseases"; "The Role of Calcium Nutrition in Skeletal Growth in Children"; "Changes in Maternal Bone With Pregnancy and Lactation: A Role for Dietary Calcium Intake"; "Bioavailability of Calcium" Discussants were:; Dean, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio; Chair, Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, and Department of Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Chairperson, Director, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Science Writer, Office of Scientific and Health Communications, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Panel and Conference Chairperson, Professor of Medicine and of Pharmacology, Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY; Program Analyst, Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Clinical Research and Review Staff, Office of Special Nutritionals Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC; Associate Professor of Medicine, Chief, Calcium and Bone Metabolism Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, Mass; Nutrition Coordinator, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Director, Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Chief, Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Growth Branch, Center for Research for Mothers and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Professor, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia; Director of Communications, Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Director, Office of Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Applications, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Chief, Nutritional Sciences Branch Acting Director, Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Professor of Medicine, Chief, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis; Chief, Nutrition Statistics Branch, Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Md; Director, Bone Biology and Bone Diseases Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Executive Vice Chancellor for Medical Affairs and Dean, Professor of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo; Program Director, Chemoprevention Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Md; Information Officer, Office of Research on Women's Health, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Public Health Specialist, Epidemiology and Oral Disease Prevention Program, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Director, Office of Nutrition, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Department Head and Professor, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind; Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health; National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

JAMA. 1994;272(24):1942-1948. doi:10.1001/jama.1994.03520240070044
Abstract

IT HAS BEEN a decade since the 1984 Consensus Development Conference on Osteoporosis first suggested that increased intake of calcium might help prevent osteoporosis. Osteoporosis affects more than 25 million people in the United States and is the major underlying cause of bone fractures in postmenopausal women and the elderly. Previous surveys have revealed that the US population experiences more than 1.5 million fractures annually at a cost in excess of $10 billion per year to the health care system. Two important factors that influence the occurrence of osteoporosis are optimal peak bone mass attained in the first two to three decades of life and the rate at which bone is lost in later years. Adequate calcium intake is critical to achieving optimal peak bone mass and modifies the rate of bone loss associated with aging. A number of publications have addressed the possible role of calcium intake in the

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