Prevalence of antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was assessed among 10 994 consecutive male and female entrants to 10 correctional systems in the United States. The HIV-1 seroprevalence for the 10 systems ranged from 2.1% to 7.6% for men and 2.5% to 14.7% for women; seroprevalence among women was higher than among men across nine of 10 systems. Using age 25 years to divide the population, HIV-1 prevalence among young women (5.2%) was significantly higher than among young men (2.3%), but similar to that in both older women (5.3%) and older men (5.6%). Overall, HIV-1 rates for nonwhites (4.8%) were higher than those for whites (2.5%). Although categories were identified across correctional systems, which may serve to focus prevention programs, variability in rates among correctional systems indicates that program planning must take local conditions into consideration.
Vlahov D, Brewer TF, Castro KG, Narkunas JP, Salive ME, Ullrich J, Muñoz A. Prevalence of Antibody to HIV-1 Among Entrants to US Correctional Facilities. JAMA. 1991;265(9):1129-1132. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03460090077036