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January 4, 1995

Acknowledging Ghosts

JAMA. 1995;273(1):73. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520250089041

In our quest to flesh out ghosts in biomedical publication,1 the editors of JAMA have clarified The Journal's policy on authorship responsibility and added a requirement for authors who recognize others' contributions in acknowledgments.2 We have not changed our policies that require all authors to meet specific criteria for authorship and sign statements of responsibility and corresponding authors to sign a statement that they have obtained permission from all persons named in the acknowledgment.3 However, recognizing that some people who make important contributions to the work reported in biomedical manuscripts may not be identified either in the byline or in the acknowledgment, we added the following information to our authorship responsibility and acknowledgment statements2:

"All persons who meet the JAMA criteria for authorship are listed as authors."

"All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript (including writing and editing

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