The first direct visual inspection of an internal organ (uterine cervix) appeared in the Babylonian Talmud (Niddah Treatise section 65b) in which a lead funnel with a bent mouthpiece equipped with a wooden drain pipe was introduced into the vagina.—Drs Sanfillipo and Lobe, chapter 26.1: "Principles of Pediatric Laparoscopy," p 451.
... in the course of a difficult biliary dissection where one does not really know where important structures are, the human surgeon could ask his machine partner to find the ducts ("Computer, show me the ducts please") using ultrasound, and then display their location on the stereoscopic heads-up display on which he is observing the operative field ("Also, computer, would you please color those ducts green... ").—Dr Michael Treat, chapter 38.6: "Surgical Robotics," p 843.
There are three types of surgical text. The first is the innovator, the seminal text—a Shackelford, a Maingot, a Sabiston—a text that sets the standard
Gordon LA. Principles of Laparoscopic Surgery: Basic and Advanced Techniques. JAMA. 1995;274(16):1311-1313. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530160063038