Effective strategies for preventing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are crucial to protect women from adverse reproductive consequences and to avoid substantial economic losses. To identify current PID prevention options and assess their efficacy, we conducted a literature search and examined relevant data in published reports. We organized our review by level of participation (ie, individuals, providers, and communities) and prevention (ie, primary, secondary, and tertiary). For individuals, several prevention strategies related to personal protection appear promising, but few have been appropriately evaluated. For providers of health care, five prevention measures are recommended, including such primary prevention activities as counseling and patient education in addition to the usual diagnosis and treatment. Specific evidence supporting the efficacy of these provider practices, however, is limited. For communities, maintaining comprehensive sexually transmitted disease control strategies to prevent lower genital tract chlamydial and gonococcal infection is most important in reducing both symptomatic and asymptomatic PID. We provide specific recommendations for preventing PID and outline research needs.
Washington AE, Cates W, Wasserheit JN. Preventing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. JAMA. 1991;266(18):2574-2580. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470180074041