—To provide clinicians and other health care providers with a current consensus on the benefits, limitations, and technical and safety issues that need to be considered in the use of cochlear implants.
—A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 14-member consensus panel representing the fields of otolaryngology, audiology, speech-language pathology, pediatrics, psychology, and education, and including a public representative. In addition, 24 experts in auditory anatomy and physiology, otolaryngology, audiology, aural rehabilitation, education, speech-language pathology, and bioengineering presented data to the consensus panel and a conference audience of 650.
—The literature was searched through MEDLINE and an extensive bibliography of references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience.
—The panel, answering predefined consensus questions, developed its conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature.
—The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference.
—Cochlear implantation improves communication ability in most adults with severe-to-profound deafness and frequently leads to positive psychological and social benefits as well. Currently, children at least 2 years old and adults with profound deafness are candidates for implantation. Cochlear implant candidacy should be extended to adults with severe hearing impairment and open-set sentence discrimination that is less than or equal to 30% in the best-aided condition. Access to optimal education and (re)habilitation services is important for adults and is critical for children to maximize the benefits available from cochlear implantation.(JAMA. 1995;274:1955-1961)
Gates GA, Daly K, Dichtel WJ, Dooling RJ, Gulya AJ, Hall JW, Jerger SW, Jones JE, Mayer MH, Pierschalla M, Ross LF, Schwartz RG, Weinstein BE, Young ED, Abbas PJ, Blarney P, Brackmann DE, Brimacombe JA, Chute PM, Cohen NL, Dorman MF, Eddington DK, Gantz BJ, Heller JW, Ketten DR, Knutson JF, Leake PA, McDermott HJ, Miyamoto RT, Moog JS, Osberger MJ, Shannon RV, Skinner MW, Summerfield Q, Tobey EA, Waltzman SB, Wilson BS, Zwolan TA, Donahue AM, Allen MP, Beck LB, Bray EA, Cooper JA, Ferguson JH, Flack MN, Hall WH, Hambrecht FT, Krasnegor N, Monjan AA, Naunton RF, Snow JB, Hodes RJ, Alexander DF, Hall ZW. Cochlear Implants in Adults and Children. JAMA. 1995;274(24):1955-1961. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530240065043