Most facial injuries that occur during athletic activities are of a minor nature, consisting of lacerations, contusions, and abrasions. These are usually treated by a team physician or an emergency department physician. However, minor injuries must be differentiated from the more significant injuries, especially those involving facial bone fractures. Significant facial trauma must be diagnosed accurately and treated with precision to avoid permanent facial deformity. Soft-tissue trauma as well as fractures are included in this review, and evaluation of the injured athlete is emphasized. A systematic approach is developed for diagnosing and treating common facial injuries in athletes.
Schultz RC, de Camara DL. Athletic Facial Injuries. JAMA. 1984;252(24):3395–3398. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03350240041036