Each year, there are an estimated 8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 3 million deaths due to TB, most of which occur in resource-poor countries. Tuberculosis incidence is increasing rapidly in countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and despite the availability of effective interventions, many TB programs are failing to cope with the increased TB caseload. This report highlights gaps in current understanding of the interaction between TB and HIV that contribute to failure of optimal TB management and control; we focus on the diagnosis of TB, its epidemiology and transmission, preventive strategies, and programmatic issues in the integration of HIV and TB services. Research into how best to apply existing knowledge will be at least as important as searching for new knowledge. The global control of TB will also require increased resources, greater political commitment, and stronger international public health leadership.
De Cock KM, Binkin NJ, Zuber PLF, Tappero JW, Castro KG. Research Issues Involving HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Resource-Poor Countries. JAMA. 1996;276(18):1502-1507. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540180058033