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NONHUMAN primate (NHP) species used in biomedical research may be infected with a variety of retroviruses including simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian spumaviruses (i.e., simian foamy viruses [SFV]), simian T-lymphotrophic viruses (STLV), and/or simian type D retroviruses. All of these retroviruses cause life-long infections in NHPs, and some are transmissible through sexual contact, blood, or breastfeeding. Following the detection of SIV infection in a worker with occupational exposure to SIV,1 in 1993 CDC and the National Institutes of Health conducted an anonymous serosurvey using stored specimens collected from U.S. workers with similar exposures. SIV seroreactivity was present in three (0.6%) of 427 stored serum samples.2
As a result of this finding, in 1993 CDC implemented a voluntary testing and counseling surveillance program to link specific exposures or health outcomes with the SIV serostatus of persons with potential occupational exposure to SIV. In 1995, the linked surveillance
Nonhuman Primate Spumavirus Infections Among Persons With Occupational Exposure—United States, 1996. JAMA. 1997;277(10):783-785. doi:10.1001/jama.1997.03540340017010