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The following device has been used as a substitute for a hot-water bag for over two years, and has proved effective, convenient and cheap.
The outfit consists of a 2-candle-power carbon filament lamp in an ordinary metal scoop-like reflector, with sufficient cord and a plug to connect with a convenient fixture. The reflector is converted into a metal box by a sheet of tin which is cut the proper size to close the open side of the reflector, leaving small ears to be bent over to hold the tin on. To prevent the metal from coming in contact with the skin, the box is slipped into a flannel or cotton bag with a drawstring. The arrangement is made clear by the sketch.
A 16 - candlepower lamp burning twenty-four hours in this box will not light even paper; therefore with a 2-candle-power lamp there is no danger of fire. Still, such
von Adelung E. A CHEAP ELECTRIC HEATER. JAMA. 1915;LXIV(3):241. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.25710290003013c