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Blood mixed in proper proportions with a solution of sodium citrate does not clot, owing to the well-known fact that the calcium salts are no longer available for coagulation. Such blood may be kept for many days in the ice-box, without losing its oxygenating function. After one week the cells show little change under the microscope, and very slight reduction in the resistance to toxic physical or biologic agencies. After a few days there is merely some tinging of the supernatant fluid. Experimentally, I have found that guinea-pigs or dogs may be practically exsanguinated, and can then be rapidly restored by venous transfusion of citrated blood, even if the blood is several days old. No unpleasant reactions occur. Human patients have been treated in the same way, receiving in various cases amounts ranging from 10 to 350 c.c. of citrated blood. The blood was used fresh in some instances; and
WEIL R. SODIUM CITRATE IN THE TRANSFUSION OF BLOOD. JAMA. 1915;LXIV(5):425-426. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.02570310045013