It is well known that the mental condition of patients with exophthalmic goiter is frequently not normal, and that a loss of balance of the nervous and psychic equilibrium is one of the first signs of beginning thyroid intoxication. Since these mental disturbances often become prominent, they have received much attention under the title of the "Basedow psychosis."
Léopold Lévi and Rothschild call the thyroid the "glande de l'émotion," and refer to the mental status of exophthalmic patients as a "hyperthyroid temperament." Homburger believes that exophthalmic goiter and the accompanying mental derangements are related in that they spring from a common ground, there being a neuropsychopathic anlage. In six epileptics suffering with exophthalmic goiter, the influence of the latter disease on concomitant psychic disturbances was marked. Many other writers refer to a relation between psychoses and exophthalmic goiter.
The most conclusive proof of relationship lies in a parallelism between the
MENTAL CHANGES IN EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER. JAMA. 1915;LXIV(22):1850-1851. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.02570480046018