Owing to the indiscriminate use of the term "shock," it seems necessary to define the meaning of the word as applied to this particular discussion.1 It is used in the sense that the surgeon applies it when a patient develops alarming symptoms during or immediately following an operation, the definite cause of which is doubtful. While the data and conclusions presented are, to a considerable extent, experimental in origin, they may also be applied to corresponding clinical conditions. The two points of paramount importance in considering the subject of shock during general anesthesia are the cause or the causes of the condition and the effect of the anesthetic in either preventing or accentuating it. Owing to the general use of ether and the ease with which definite tensions may be administered it was the only anesthetic used in my experiments, and all the conclusions are based on this anesthetic.
MANN FC. SHOCK DURING GENERAL ANESTHESIA. JAMA. 1917;LXIX(5):371-375. doi:10.1001/jama.1917.02590320047012