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Article
August 31, 1907

THE IMPORTANCE OF ICE IN THE PRODUCTION OF TYPHOID FEVER.

Author Affiliations

NEW YORK CITY.

JAMA. 1907;XLIX(9):731-732. doi:10.1001/jama.1907.25320090007001a
Abstract

We may endeavor to settle this question directly by determining whether epidemics or scattered cases of typhoid fever have been traced to ice, or, failing in this, we may try to estimate the probability of such infection by learning the duration of life of the typhoid bacillus after freezing.

The total number of instances of typhoid fever which have been directly traced to ice infection are remarkably few. I have been unable to trace more than two or three. One was in France, where a group of officers placed ice made from water polluted by a sewer in their wine and afterward developed typhoid fever, while those of the same company not using ice escaped. A second case was in a small epidemic brought to my notice which occurred in those who used ice from a pond. It was found that water directly infected with typhoid feces had flowed over

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