The uncertainties that frequently surrounded the diagnosis of lesions in the deeper urinary tract have been materially lessened by recent advances in the physical methods of diagnosis. This is particularly true of the intrarenal and intraureteral disorders, where improvements in diagnosis have resulted in a clearer differentiation between the symptoms of conditions that had been grouped as identical; in a more exact determination of the character and location of the lesion; and hence in a more accurate analysis of the indications for treatment, resulting in valuable modifications, more precise operative intervention, and, finally, a marked betterment in results.
The facts that have led to a differentiation in the symptomatology and a more accurate localizing of intrarenal and intraureteral lesions have been derived from the study of the symptoms after an accurate localization of a calculus has been made by the Roentgen method of diagnosis. Thus the localizing symptoms observed as
LEONARD CL. SOME ADVANCES IN RENAL AND URETERAL DIAGNOSIS.. JAMA. 1907;XLIX(13):1094-1098. doi:10.1001/jama.1907.25320130028001l