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Previous editions of this work have been reviewed fully in The Journal so that an extensive review is not called for now. The new feature of the present edition is the presentation of those facts which during the past three years have been accepted as important in the treatment of bone injuries. A chapter on the operative treatment of fractures has been added. The author seems to belong to the rather large class of men who would advise operative treatment only in exceptional cases and even then with much hesitation and misgiving. Scudder believes that greater care with regard to the essentials of non-operative treatment will make the operative treatment unnecessary. He avoids a direct statement, except to say that in his opinion the broad indications for operation in recent closed fractures, in the absence of damage to soft parts, is inability to bring fragments into such apposition and alignment
The Treatment of Fractures.. JAMA. 1911;LVII(22):1794. doi:10.1001/jama.1911.04260110294035