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Umbilical hernia occurs in three different forms:
The umbilical hernia of infants and young people, due to the weakening of the umbilical cicatrix, which yields before intra-abdominal pressure. This condition rarely persists until adult life and is readily amenable to treatment.
The umbilical hernia of adults, usually due to a protrusion of omentum or intestine through an opening in the linea alba either just above or below the umbilicus. This form usually requires operative treatment.
The congenital umbilical hernia, or exomphalos, which is an exceedingly rare condition due to the imperfect closure of the abdominal walls, as a result of which the intestine is not entirely withdrawn into the abdomen at birth, but is found in a cavity at the base of the umbilical cord, which is bulbous and enlarged. If the condition is overlooked it may be included in the ligature with which the cord is tied, causing fatal
HICKS IF. EXOMPHALOS SUCCESSFULLY OPERATED ON.. JAMA. 1905;XLV(6):403. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.52510060039004b