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The biologic test for the urine, perfected by Bouchard, is a most important addition to our means of studying disease processes in the body and the effects of various infectious and toxic agents upon the animal organism. Bouchard demonstrated what had previously been suspected, that urea is not the most important toxic agent of urine, although the most abundant excretory product. His researches demonstrated the fact that urea is only very slightly toxic in character, and that it, in fact, serves a very important and useful rôle in the economy by stimulating renal activity, acting thus as a true physiologic diuretic. The experiments of Bouchard and Rogers have shown very clearly that the urine contains more than half a dozen toxic agents, most of which are far more important in character than urea. Urea is, however, a useful measure of these agents under ordinary circumstances, that is, when the urine
KELLOGG JH. THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL UPON URINARY TOXICITY, AND ITS RELATION TO THE MEDICAL USE OF ALCOHOL.. JAMA. 1895;XXV(12):486-488. doi:10.1001/jama.1895.02430380016002c