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I made a voyage from Austria to Brazil in 1901 on the steamer Gundulic under the worst conditions imaginable. On the first night after leaving the Austrian harbor of Trieste the sight of numerous rats astonished me. A few days later we arrived at Alexandria, Egypt, which then was plague ridden. While there we were in quarantine, that is, without any direct communication with the land in order to avoid troublesome measures in other ports. We took no merchandise, except some provisions which were hauled on board with ropes in baskets and dirty sacks from barges.
After a stay of several days we left for Tangier (Morocco), St. Vincent (Cape Verde Islands) and Pernambuco (Brazil). When we approached the warmer climate I noticed that the noise made every night by the rats grew less and finally ceased. After we left Pernambuco for Rio de Janeiro, our cook and the steward
STRAUCH A. TRANSMISSION OF BUBONIC PLAGUE BY SHIP RATS.. JAMA. 1906;XLVI(20):1511-1512. doi:10.1001/jama.1906.62510470025001f