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Article
July 28, 1906

THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF VARIATIONS OF WRIST AND ANKLE.

Author Affiliations

Parkman Professor of Anatomy at the Harvard Medical School. BOSTON.

JAMA. 1906;XLVII(4):252-255. doi:10.1001/jama.1906.25210040008002a
Abstract

The paper which I have the honor to present to the Association contains little that is new to professional anatomists, but the underlying facts have not yet been brought, through the text books, to the cognizance of practical surgeons. The purpose is to call attention to matters of clinical importance, ignoring so far as may be, all abstract science. It were superfluous to show that variations are very numerous. I wish to insist on the practical point that they are to be expected at certain definite places. These variations are of four classes. The first is due to an increase in the number of bones, owing to the persistence of elements which normally fuse or disappear; the second, to a diminution of bones, owing to the union of elements usually distinct; the third, to unusual relations between bones; and the fourth to the exceptional development of processes usually small or

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