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CHAPTER I.—DOCTOR AND BARBER.
Barbers practiced side by side with physicians. A characteristic, in the broadest sense of the word, of the eighteenth century may be expressed: Medicine and surgery were sharply separated and German surgery lay almost entirely in the hands of the barbers. A cursory glance into the past of German surgery shows that in spite of the great fondness of Germans for war and the chase in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, it was little valued and, at times, even left to the butchers (carnifices), who opened the corpses of the great and embalmed them. If one of the nobility had been harmed by a surgeon when bleeding him, the surgeon was sentenced to a fine of 160 scudi, and in the case of death the law gave him into the hands of the relatives of the deceased, who could do with him as they pleased. The
FISCHER G, VON KLEIN CH. SURGERY ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO.AN HISTORICAL STUDY. JAMA. 1897;XXVIII(9):407–413. doi:10.1001/jama.1897.02440090025002o