The decreased number of recurrences after a thorough removal of the breast according to the method of Halsted and others has taught us that the same principles could be applied in the surgical treatment of carcinomata elsewhere in the body. In no class of cases does this seem more promising than in carcinomata of the more superficial character like those of the face, tongue, lips, ear, etc.
MODE OF GROWTH OF SQUAMOUS-CELLED CARCINOMATA.
Carcinomata of the lips, tongue, ear, etc., all belong to the flat or squamous-celled type. They spread almost exclusively either by continuity of tissue or along the lymphatic spaces and vessels to the lymph nodes which normally drain the region involved. Metastatic growths in the internal viscera or long bones are very rare in the squamous - celled type of carcinoma.von Winiwarter and Landau were unable to find internal metastases in a large number of cases examined
EISENDRATH DN. A PLEA FOR MORE RADICAL OPERATIONS IN CANCER OF THE LIPS AND TONGUE.. JAMA. 1906;XLVII(13):986-990. doi:10.1001/jama.1906.25210130010001d