That we may reason from a foundation of established basic principles, let us assume that it is generally agreed: 1, That absolute sterilization of the hands from all pathogenic bacteria and spores is impracticable; 2, that the parturient canal is usually free from pathogenic organisms, and that when they are present it is fair to assume that they have been introduced from without; 3, that frequent and prolonged manipulations within the genital canal, and the lacerations and abrasions they produce, vastly increase the dangers of and from infection.
All manual operations for the rapid dilatation of the cervical canal and extraction of the fetus are dangerous, beside being slow and exhausting. The routine use of rubber gloves reduces the risk of infection to a great degree, but they operate somewhat against facility and certainty in the work.
WETHERILL HG. THE DIFFICULTIES AND DANGERS OF ACCOUCHEMENT FORCE.A SIMPLE, SAFE AND SUCCESSFUL METHOD.. JAMA. 1904;XLIII(19):1368-1372. doi:10.1001/jama.1904.92500190001c