It is unquestionably true that this century has witnessed greater advances in the knowledge of mental physiology than all the ages that have gone before. The nervous system and especially the cerebrum were, prior to this century, almost a terra incognita. We may not know more respecting the properties of mind than our forefathers did, but we understand as they could not the conditions of mental action.
The movement inaugurated by Gall and Spurzheim early in this century undoubtedly added a powerful stimulus to the study of mind. The doctrine of localizations in the brain then first was given formal statement. Although the body of teaching comprised under the name of phrenology was erroneous, there was some truth which gave the system the success which it for a time attained. Attention was powerfully directed to the physical correlatives of mind and the so-called mental faculties were analyzed and defined
HURD EP. RECENT PROGRESS IN MENTAL PHYSIOLOGY.. JAMA. 1898;XXX(7):348-353. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.72440590008001b