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The presence of air in the pleural cavity is known as pneumothorax, but it is only rarely that air is present alone, inasmuch as the causative factors are almost always irritating, if not actually septic; thus effusion also generally results, often serous and sometimes purulent, and the condition then becomes one of hydropneumothorax or pyopneumothorax. Air may gain entrance into the pleural cavity as the result of perforating wounds of the chest, perforation of the pleura through the diaphragm or the esophagus, or perforation of the lung. The last-named variety of perforation may occur in the normal lung from the rupture of air-vesicles, or as a result of local disease of the lung, and, also, in consequence of destructive or ulcerative disease of the pleura. Finally, pneumothorax may result from the generation of gas in the pleural cavity by the bacillus aerogenes. One of those rare instances in which the
PNEUMOTHORAX WITHOUT EFFUSION IN THE ABSENCE OF OTHER DISEASES.. JAMA. 1900;XXXV(4):237-238. doi:10.1001/jama.1900.02460300039013