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April 23, 1898


Author Affiliations


JAMA. 1898;XXX(17):961-964. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.72440690021002c

The diagnosis of typhoid fever is a very modern achievement. A long list of diseases has been recognized by physicians from the time of Hippocrates, but the disease-entity which we call typhoid fever was not recognized as a separate disease until the early part of the nineteenth century. The name typhoid was bestowed upon it in 1829, but even then it was confused with typhus fever, and it remained for a distinguished American physician, Gerhard of Philadelphia, finally to differentiate it from all other fevers. This was in 1837. It was less than ten years before the discovery of anesthesia by ether. Pause and consider with what rapidity the science of clinical diagnosis has developed. Within the memory of physicians yet living, typhoid fever, now one of the corner stones of a medical education, was for the first time differentiated as a truly distinct disease. This remarkable fact allows one

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