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Article
November 10, 1900

THE ACTION OF DISEASE TOXINS ON THE LOWER FORMS OF LIFE.

JAMA. 1900;XXXV(19):1218-1219. doi:10.1001/jama.1900.02460450034005
Abstract

One of the indices of a toxemic condition, or of autointoxication, is the toxicity of the blood, and this has been tested hitherto by its action on the lower animals when injected into their tissues. Klingman1 points out that a common fresh-water alga, spirogyra, can also be utilized for this purpose, and forms, in fact, a very delicate test for pathologic variations of blood toxicity. Naegeli had shown some years ago that this organism reacted pathologically to the toxic action of infinitesimal amounts of certain substances, such as copper, silver, lead, zinc, and mercury. Klingman and Israel2 repeated some of his experiments, using mere copper foil immersed in water, and produced cessation of protoplasmic streaming, granulation of the protoplasm, followed by division of the cylinder with nuclear changes, and finally retraction of the outer portion of the tube and destruction of the chlorophyl bands. In a more recent

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