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Cunningham, in opening his chapter on the dissection of the scalp, says: "Strictly speaking, the term 'scalp' should be restricted to the soft parts which cover the vault of the cranium above the level of the temporal ridges and the superior curved line of the occipital bone"; whilst Treves states it is convenient to consider the term "scalp" as limited to the structures formed by the union of the first three layers, viz., the skin, the subcutaneous fatty tissue or superficial fascia, and the occipito-frontalis muscle and its epicranial aponeurosis.
How strikingly does the scalp area of Cunningham correspond with the area of baldness as seen in most individuals the subjects of this condition! But still more precisely and accurately does the area of baldness correspond to the area of the epicranial aponeurosis, a structure in which there are no muscular fibers nor yet any underlying muscular fibers between it
ELLIOTT G. THE ANATOMIC FACTOR IN THE PRODUCTION OF BALDNESS.. JAMA. 1902;XXXVIII(13):814-815. doi:10.1001/jama.1902.62480130012001c