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Although water has been employed for therapeutic purposes more or less systematically for upward of one hundred years, it is only since the publication by Brand, in 1861, of his monograph on the "Hydrotherapy of Typhoid Fever," that the usefulness of this agency has received at all general recognition. Further time was required before the method of Brand was universally accepted, and this result was brought about only by the reduction in mortality that was demonstrated to take place as a result of its adoption. Brand recommended immersion of the typhoid patient for fifteen minutes in water at a temperature of 68 F., whenever the temperature, taken in the rectum every three hours, reached 102.2 F. This formula is, however, not an inflexible one, and its elements may be varied, in accordance with special conditions that may be present, or particular results that may be desired. Thus, the frequency of
TREATMENT OF TYPHOID FEVER BY COLD BATHING.. JAMA. 1900;XXXIV(4):238-239. doi:10.1001/jama.1900.02460040048006