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January 17, 1966

Artificial Patient Planned; Will Train Anesthesiologists

JAMA. 1966;195(3):35. doi:10.1001/jama.1966.03100030017006

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A computer-controlled artificial patient that can breathe, cough, vomit, and otherwise react to some therapy is being developed at the University of Southern California.

Primarily, the life-size torso manikin will be used as a teaching device to simulate responses to drug administration or other anesthesiology procedures carried out in the operating room.

"Although the simulated patient will not have actual organ function, it will be able to show both abdominal and chest respiratory movements which can be varied in rate and degree," a co-director of the USC project told The Journal. "The pulse rate may be taken, and the heart beat heard through a stethoscope."

The model may be programmed to open and close its eyes and mouth, dilate or contract its pupils, extend its tongue, twitch muscles, tense and relax vocal cords—and even change skin color from pink to blue to ashen white.

The simulator will be sensitive to

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