In 47 patients with pulmonary thromboembolism, selective pulmonary arteriograms disclosed complete or incomplete obstructions of various arterial branches, intra-arterial filling defects, decrease in volume of affected lung segments, and changes in caliber of involved arteries. In 76 other patients with a variety of disorders including left ventricular failure, pneumonia, pulmonary tumor, abscess, bulla, fibrosis, or pulmonary emphysema, the pulmonary arteries were patent to the subsegmental level, showing neither filling defects nor obstructive lesions. Selective pulmonary arteriography has proved practical and relatively safe in our hands. We recommend it as a useful means of establishing the presence and extent of pulmonary thromboemboli, and of determining their location.
Alexander JK, Gonzalez DA, Fred HL. Angiographic Studies in Cardiorespiratory DiseasesSpecial Reference to Thromboembolism. JAMA. 1966;198(6):575-578. doi:10.1001/jama.1966.03110190057017