It was determined that employment of the Newark Beth Israel Hospital (NBIH) intracardiac dipolar electrode for temporary cardiac pacing in preparation of patients for permanent pacemaker implantation or other operation is a dependable and easily performed procedure. The dipolar electrode was found most effective when positioned at any site in the right ventricle where the lowest driving voltage is required. Endocardial contact was not necessary. The optimal distance between electrodes was 1 cm or less, the need thus being obviated for an external indifferent electrode. Endocardial or myocardial damage was not demonstrated. Subsequent major operation was uneventful when cardiac rate and rhythmicity were controlled. Confidence of the patient was markedly improved. Poor-risk patients were well supported. Patients were ambulatory. Formation of clot on the positive pole of a tripolar or coaxial catheter was not demonstrated in animals.
Zucker IR, Parsonnet V, Gilbert L, Asa M. Dipolar Electrode in Heart Block. JAMA. 1963;184(7):549-552. doi:10.1001/jama.1963.03700200071013