Facial pain is an affliction commonly seen in the clinical practice of medicine due to the extensive sensory innervation of the head. The duality of pain perception and reaction make diagnosis difficult. Many extracranial conditions are associated with facial pain: dental conditions, lesions of the mandible and temporomandihular joint, diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses, lesions of the pharynx, nasopharynx, cervical spine, and cervical musculature. In evaluation of pain, the diagnostician should remember that the reaction to pain is often the presenting complaint. The perception of pain is equally important. Both aspects must be considered during the differential diagnosis.
Catlin FI. Differential Diagnosis of Facial Pains. JAMA. 1963;186(4):291-295. doi:10.1001/jama.1963.03710040017003