Author Affiliations: Center for Cardiovascular Innovation, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (Dr Gheorghiade); and TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (Dr Braunwald).
Acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) have been defined as new-onset or recurrence of worsening signs and symptoms of HF necessitating urgent or emergency management.1 More than 1 million hospital admissions occur annually for AHFS both in the United States and in Europe.2 Initial management of AHFS has changed little over the last decades.3 Although patients with AHFS experience symptomatic improvement during hospitalization, the postdischarge rehospitalization rate and mortality within 60 to 90 days remain as high as 30% and 15%, respectively.4
Gheorghiade M, Braunwald E. A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes. JAMA. 2011;305(16):1702-1703. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.515