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This Week in JAMA
February 13, 2013

This Week in JAMA

JAMA. 2013;309(6):517. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.145214

In a multicenter randomized trial that involved 667 adults with acute bacterial skin infections, Prokocimer and colleagues compared the efficacy of tedizolid phosphate—a novel antibiotic in development—with linezolid. The authors assessed clinical response—absence of fever and cessation of lesion spread—48 to 72 hours after initiating therapy and found that the efficacy of tedizolid phosphate was statistically noninferior to linezolid. In an editorial, Doron and Boucher discuss antibiotic treatment of skin infections and clinical investigation of new treatment options.

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Surén and colleagues analyzed data from 85 176 children enrolled in the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and found that maternal use of periconceptional folic acid supplements was associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in their children. In an editorial, Berry and colleagues discuss folic acid supplementation and risk of autism spectrum disorders.

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In a 1-year follow-up of 1463 individuals who participated in a Helicobacter pylori infection eradication trial in 7 Latin American communities, Morgan and colleagues assessed the risk of recurrent infection and factors associated with successful H pylori eradication. The authors found that among the 1091 participants (74.6%) with a negative end-of-treatment urea breath test, 125 (11.5%) had a positive test result a year later. Factors associated with H pylori recurrence included study site, nonadherence to initial therapy, and children in the household.

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Krumholz and colleagues analyzed 2005-2008 US Medicare data to examine the association between hospital 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates and risk-standardized readmission rates for patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (4506 hospitals), heart failure (4767 hospitals), or pneumonia (4811 hospitals). The authors report their findings do not support concerns that hospitals with lower mortality rates will have higher readmission rates.

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Malaria prophylaxis during pregnancy in most sub-Saharan Africa countries consists of 2 intermittent doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Each dose provides up to 6 weeks' posttreatment prophylaxis, but the 2-dose regimen may not provide protection in late pregnancy—an important period for fetal weight gain. In a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from 7 malaria prophylaxis trials (6281 pregnancies), Kayentao and colleagues found that regimens containing 3 or more doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were associated with higher birth weight and lower risk of low birth weight than standard 2-dose regimens.

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A 40-year-old man has a 2-month history of left periorbital swelling and pain without trauma, fever, or recent sinusitis. Examination reveals chemosis and proptosis. Neurological examination and laboratory studies are unremarkable. What would you do next?

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Public health leaders in India, where circumstances have fostered the development of drug-resistant microbes, are spearheading an effort to tackle the issue of antimicrobial resistance.

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Silencing gun injury research

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Curbing gun violence

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Improving access to mental health services for youth

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Community research partnerships

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“You became a living textbook for me, a source of information that could answer all my burning questions and satisfy my ever-growing appetite for medical knowledge.” From “Portrait of an Artist.”

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Restoring confidence in the pharmaceutical industry

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Dr Livingston summarizes and comments on this week's issue. Go to www.jama.com.

Join Daniel S. Chertow, MD, MPH, February 20, 2013, from 2 to 3 PM eastern time to discuss bacterial coinfection in influenza. To register, go to http://www.ihi.org/AuthorintheRoom.

For your patients: Information about slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

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