In in vitro and animal studies, nonoxynol-9, a commonly used spermicide,
was found to inactivate various sexually transmitted pathogens, but results
of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a vaginal microbicide have
been inconsistent. In this randomized controlled trial, Roddy and colleaguesArticle
compared nonoxynol-9 gel and condom use with condom use alone for the prevention
of male-to-female transmission of urogenital gonococcal and chlamydial infection.
The rate of new urogenital infections in the gel plus condom group was not
significantly different from that in the condom group. In an editorial, RichardsonArticle urges continued research on other vaginal microbicides.
To determine whether long-term cannabis use is associated with cognitive
impairments, Solowij and colleaguesArticle assessed the neuropsychological performance
of long- and shorter-term cannabis users seeking treatment for cannabis dependence
and of nonusers. Cannabis users were tested a median of 17 hours after last
cannabis use. Long-term users performed significantly less well than shorter-term
users and nonusers on measures of memory and attention. Performance on some
tests worsened as a function of increasing years of cannabis use. In an editorial,
PopeArticle evaluates possible confounding in this and other studies of cannabis
use, observing that available evidence is not sufficient to know with certainty
whether cognitive deficits persist after long-term cannabis use.
Short-term exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated
with adverse health outcomes, but evidence suggesting an association between
long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and adverse health outcomes
is less conclusive. Pope and colleagues analyzed 1982 mortality risk factor
data combined with vital status and cause of death data through 1998 from
participants in the prospective Cancer Prevention Study II linked with air
pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States. Long-term
exposure to fine particulate air pollution was associated with elevated risks
of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality.
Commotio cordis—sudden cardiac arrest from blunt, nonpenetrating
blows to the chest—has been associated with competitive sports. In this
analysis of data from 128 cases of commotio cordis in the US Commotio Cordis
Registry, Maron and colleagues found that most reported commotio cordis events
occurred during organized sports, but many events also occurred during routine
daily and recreational activities.
Compact extended-cab pickup trucks typically have small rear occupant
compartments with auxiliary, nonstandard seats that are exempt from regulatory
safety testing. In this cross-sectional study of motor vehicle crashes involving
children aged 15 years and younger, Winston and colleagues found that children
in compact extended-cab pickup trucks were at greater risk of injury than
children in other vehicles. The overall increased risk of injury was primarily
due to the substantial increase in risk of injury of children seated in the
rear seats of compact pickup trucks compared with that of children seated
in the rear seats of other vehicles.
Throughout the country, medical schools are finding meaningful ways
to incorporate education about dealing with terrorism into their curricula.
In this prospective cohort study, retinal arteriolar narrowing was associated
with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in women but
not in men.
A review of the accuracy and precision of case-finding questionnaires
and clinical interview strategies for the diagnosis of clinical depression.
Gross anatomy: ritual, learning, art.
For your patients: Information about child car safety seats.
This Week in JAMA. JAMA. 2002;287(9):1079. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.260