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From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
February 20, 2008

Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0-18 Years—United States, 2008

JAMA. 2008;299(7):758-762. doi:10.1001/jama.299.7.758

MMWR. 2008;57:Q1-Q4

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) annually publishes a recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0-18 years to reflect changes in vaccine formulations and current recommendations for the use of licensed vaccines. Changes to the previous schedule1 are as follows:

  • The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) footnote reflects updated recommendations for incompletely vaccinated children aged 24-59 months, including those with underlying medical conditions.2

  • Recommendations for use of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) now include healthy children aged as young as 2 years. LAIV should not be administered to children aged <5 years with recurrent wheezing.3 Children aged <9 years who are receiving influenza vaccine for the first time or who were vaccinated for the first time last season, but only received 1 dose, should have 2 doses of vaccine, at least 4 weeks apart. Other updates are included.4

  • For meningococcal vaccines, changes affect certain children aged 2-10 years.5 Vaccinating with meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) is preferred to meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) for children at increased risk for meningococcal disease, including children who are traveling to or residents of countries in which the disease is hyperendemic or epidemic, children who have terminal complement component deficiencies, and children who have anatomic or functional asplenia. The catch-up schedule for youths aged 13-18 years has been updated. MPSV4 is an acceptable alternative for short-term (i.e., 3-5 years) protection against meningococcal disease for persons aged 2-18 years.6

  • The tetanus and diphtheria toxoids/tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (Td/Tdap) catch-up schedule for persons aged 7-18 years who received their first dose before age 12 months now indicates that these youths should receive 4 doses, with at least 4 weeks (not 8 weeks) between doses 2 and 3.

  • The catch-up bars for hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine have been deleted on the routine schedule for persons aged 0-6 years. The figure title refers users to the catch-up schedule for patients who fall behind or start late with vaccinations.

The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act requires that health-care providers provide parents or patients with copies of Vaccine Information Statements before administering each dose of the vaccines listed in the schedule. Additional information is available from state health departments and from CDC at

Detailed recommendations for using vaccines are available from package inserts, ACIP statements (available at, and the 2006 Red Book.7 Guidance regarding the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System form is available at or by telephone, 800-822-7967.

The recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years and the catch-up immunization schedule for 2008 have been approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. The standard MMWR footnote format has been modified for publication of this schedule.

Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2008. MMWR 2007;56(51&52):Q1–Q4.

CDC.  Recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedule—United States.  MMWR. 2007;55(51&52):Q1-Q4
CDC.  Revised recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for the prevention of pneumococcal disease. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2007. Available at
CDC.  Expansion of use of live attenuated influenza vaccine (FluMist®) to children aged 2-4 years and other FluMist changes for the 2007-08 influenza season.  MMWR. 2007;56:1217-1219
CDC.  Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).  MMWR. 2007;56:(No. RR-6) 
CDC.  Recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) in children aged 2-10 years at increased risk for invasive meningococcal disease.  MMWR. 2007;56:1265-1266
CDC.  Revised recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to vaccinate all persons aged 11-18 years with meningococcal conjugate vaccine.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(31):794-795PubMed
American Academy of Pediatrics.  Active and passive immunization. In: Pickering LK, ed. 2006 red book: report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 27th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2006