Since the mid-1990s, several hundred cases of acute encephalopathy have
been reported in Japanese children with influenza virus infection.1,2 These cases have been characterized
by fever and rapid onset of encephalopathy, resulting in a high frequency
of neurologic sequelae and mortality. The majority of the children have had
laboratory-confirmed evidence of influenza.
Reports of influenza-associated encephalopathy have been uncommon in
the United States.3,4 To
determine if a similar pattern is occurring in the United States, CDC is requesting
information on any case meeting certain criteria. The criteria include a person
aged <18 years with altered mental status or personality change lasting
>24 hours and occurring within 5 days of onset of an acute febrile respiratory
illness, laboratory or rapid diagnostic test evidence of acute influenza virus
infection associated with the respiratory illness, and diagnosis of the condition
in the United States. Cases meeting these criteria should be reported to CDC
(telephone, 404-639-0277 or 404-639-2893; fax, 404-639-3866; or e-mail, email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org).
Request for Information About Acute Encephalopathy Associated With Influenza Virus Infection in U.S. Children. JAMA. 2004;291(2):178. doi:10.1001/jama.291.2.178