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Edited by Phil Fontanarosa, MD, MBA, and Howard Bauchner, MD
This issue of JAMA includes a collection of articles that commemorate the 70th birthday of the Lasker Awards Program, which recognizes significant achievements in basic and clinical medical research, public health service, and special achievement in the medical sciences.
The prevalence of myopia is increasing—particularly in Asia. Several studies suggest that increased time spent outdoors may protect against the development of myopia or slow its progression. He and colleagues assessed the relationship between increased time outdoors and myopia development in a cluster randomized trial involving 1903 primary school children (mean age, 6.6 years) in Guangzhou, China. During the 3-year trial, children at 6 intervention schools participated in an additional 40-minute class of outdoor activities each school day, and children at 6 control schools continued their usual activity. The authors report that among the 6-year-old study participants, additional outdoor activity daily at school reduced the incidence of myopia over the 3-year study period. In an Editorial, Repka discusses current challenges in myopia prevention and progression.
Continuing Medical Education
Half of all US medical school graduates are women; however, the proportion of women who are full professors in medical schools has not increased since 1980. In an analysis of cross-sectional data from 91 073 physicians with medical school faculty appointments in 2014, Jena and colleagues found that women were substantially less likely than men to be full professors after accounting for age, experience, specialty, and measures of research productivity. In an Editorial, Byington and Lee discuss ways to address disparities in academic medicine.
Editorial and Related Article
Author Audio Interview
The mortality risk after hip fracture surgery is higher than the risk after elective total hip replacement (THR); whether this association is due to the advanced age and comorbidities of typical patients with a hip fracture is not clear. In an analysis of hospital discharge data from 690 995 French patients who underwent hip surgery, Le Manach and colleagues found that compared with elective THR, hip fracture surgery was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and preoperative comorbidities.
An article in JAMA Oncology reported that patients who viewed video vignettes of 2 physicians conveying optimistic vs less optimistic treatment information rated physician compassion higher and expressed a preference for the physician who delivered the more optimistic message. In this From the JAMA Network article, Minami and colleagues discuss dynamics of patient-physician interactions.
A woman presented with a growing, painful abdominal scar at the site of a complicated interventional radiology procedure 10 years prior. She reported recent fevers, night sweats, nausea, and fatigue. Medical history included uterine and breast cancers, with no history of radiation therapy. Examination revealed an indurated pink and purple plaque with areas of ulceration and finger-like projections of purple subcutaneous papules. What would you do next?
This JAMA Diagnostic Test Interpretation article presents the case of a woman with increasingly severe headaches associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and sensitivity to noise, which did not respond to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and sumatriptan. Her neurological examination was normal. A routine blood cell count was normal with the exception of a platelet count of 655 × 103/μL. How would you interpret this result?
Highlights. JAMA. 2015;314(11):1093-1095. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.11977